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Adrafinil Research

The following is a list of studies performed which provide evidence of Adrafinil’s cognitive enhancing potential.

When reviewing the results of these studies it’s important to understand that Adrafinil acts as a prodrug for Modafinil, meaning supplementation of Adrafinil causes increased concentrations of Modafinil in the body. For this reason, some studies mentioned below were performed explicitly on Modafinil but their findings are applicable to Adrafinil as well.

This paper reviews and compiles different studies performed on Adrafinil.

Key Conclusions:

  • Adrafinil has a positive effect on motivation and vigilance
  • Adrafinil reduces daytime sleepiness without lowering sleep quality or effecting blood pressure and heart rate
  • Adrafinil has been shown to enhance mood in the elderly
  • Adrafinil’s effects operate on a U-shaped dose response curve, suggesting that increasing the dosage doesn’t necessarily increase the benefits experienced.
  • Adrafinil is neuroprotective

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This study evaluated Modafinil’s potential as a cognitive enhancing agent in healthy volunteers. Sixty healthy young adult males were given either a placebo or 100-200 mg of Modafinil before being given tasks designed to test memory and attention.

It found that Modafinil significantly enhanced performance and time needed to complete the tests in question, showing evidence of its ability to enhance cognition in healthy adults.

Key Conclusions:

  • Improves performance on specific neuropsychological tasks, suggesting an enhancement of some specific aspects of cognition in healthy volunteers.
  • Significantly enhanced performance on tests of digit span, visual pattern recognition memory, spatial planning, and stop-signal reaction time.
  • In addition to improving outcomes on the above tests, tests of delayed sample matching, decision making, and spatial planning were completed with reduced latency.

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This study was performed to evaluate the effects of Modafinil on non-verbal cognition, tasks enjoyment, and creative thinking in healthy adults. The study was double blind and placebo controlled, and used non-verbal tests of divergent and convergent thinking to measure creativity. Measures were also employed to gauge the participants’ enjoyment of each task.

It found that Modafinil did provide improvements in tests of spatial working memory, planning, decision making, and visual pattern recognition. It also determined that Modafinil increased the enjoyment participants felt when completing the tasks. Despite this, the study found that Modafinil had no impact on creativity.

Key Conclusions:

  • Improves performance of healthy volunteers in tests of executive functions.
  • Improves performance on spatial working memory, planning and decision making, and visual pattern recognition memory.
  • Improves subjective reports of task enjoyment, but didn’t affect overall mood evaluations.
  • Enhances aspects of highly demanding cognitive performance in non-sleep deprived individuals.

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This study, using previous studies showing Modafinil improves cognition in healthy volunteers as a base, sought to determine induced similar improvements in adults suffering from ADHD. 20 patients that were diagnosed with ADHD were entered into a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study using a single 200 mg dose of Modafinil. These participants were given a battery of tests measuring cognitive performance.

It found that Modafinil improves cognitive function in adults suffering from ADHD much like it does in healthy adults. Improvements were seen on tests of short-term memory, visual memory, stop-signal motor inhibition, and spatial planning.

Key Conclusions:

  • Improves neuropsychological task performance in ADHD patients.
  • While Modafinil had little impact on sustained attention in healthy volunteers, it did improve this in ADHD patients.

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This study was performed to gauge the effect of 200 mg of Modafinil on the performance of healthy doctors after 1 night of sleep deprivation. A parallel, double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled study was conducted using CANTAB tests of cognitive function as well as assessments of clinical psychomotor performance.

It found that Modafinil improved their effectiveness when solving problems requiring the use of working memory, decreased the impulsiveness with which decisions were made, and improved their ability to redirect their attention. No improvement was seen on tests of psychomotor performance, however.

Key Conclusions:

  • Modafinil was found to provide improvements in working memory and planning problems. It also reduced impulsive decision making and improved their ability to flexibly redirect attention.

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In this double-blind, placebo controlled study the effects of Modafinil on overconfidence and cognitive performance was tested. Subjects were either given placebos or 300 mg of Modafinil and were attended three 50 minute sessions which tested both subjective assessments of mood, fatigue, and motivation as well as cognitive assessments of reaction time, logical reasoning, visual comparison, vigilance, and mental addition.

Modafinil was found to have improved fatigue levels, motivation, reaction time, and vigilance. Both the Modafinil and placebo groups were found to accurately self-assess their performance in the cognitive assessment tasks.

Key Conclusions:

  • Improves fatigue levels, motivation, reaction-time, and vigilance.

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This study was performed to see if previous findings that Modafinil improves cognition in healthy volunteers and ADHD patients would also apply to patients suffering from schizophrenia. A double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled crossover study was performed on twenty patients suffering from chronic schizophrenia.

The study found improvements on short-term verbal memory, visual memory, and spatial planning. Most significant, Modafinil improved attentional set shifting in patients suffering from schizophrenia, but not among healthy volunteers or those with ADHD.

Key Conclusions:

  • Evidence of cognitive enhancing properties in healthy adults, those with ADHD, and those with schizophrenia.
  • Has beneficial effects on attentional set shifting. (The ability to shift and focus attention on particular items without interference from other inputs.)

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This study tested Modafinil as a potential treatment for idiopathic hypersomnia and narcolepsy. It found that drowsiness was significantly decreased in 83% of the subjects that suffered from hypersomnia, and 71% of those with narcolepsy.

Also of note, the study found that Modafinil rarely produced peripheric side effects, did not disturb the quality of sleep, and was not responsible for addiction even in patients that used it consistently for 3 years.

Key Conclusions:

  • Improves daytime wakefulness without producing peripheric side effects, disrupting the quality of night-time sleep, or causing dependence

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This study was performed to gauge the selectivity of Modafinil as a wakefulness-promoting agent relative to the profile of Methamphetamine. Groups of rats were given either Modafinil or Methamphetamine, and the effects of each on their sleep-wake cycle were compared.

It found that while both Modafinil and Meth increase wakefulness, Modafinil did not produce a subsequent rebound hypersomnolence which differentiates it from amphetamine-like stimulants.

Key Conclusions:

  • Modafinil (which Adrafinil is metabolized into), increases wakefulness without rebound hypersomnolence

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This study compared the effects of the drugs Adrafinil, Propentofylline, and Nicergoline for enhancing behavior in aged dogs. It found that treatment with Adrafinil significantly increased locomotion in both the dogs’ home cage and in field tests. The researchers’ concluded that treatment with Adrafinil could have a beneficial effect on the quality of life among aged dogs.

Key Conclusions:

  • Increases exploratory behavior and alertness in canines

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This study examined the effects of Adrafinil on behaviour and cognitive performance in elderly dogs. It was found to enhance the acquisition of a size discrimination problem, leading researchers to conclude that Adrafinil has potential as a cognitive enhancer.

Key Conclusions:

  • Adrafinil has potential as a cognitive enhancer
  • Adrafinil improves the acquisition of a size discrimination problem, suggesting a beneficial effect on motivation.

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This study examined Modafinil’s potential as a treatment for Parkinson’s disease by testing it’s effect on striatal ischemic injury and nigrostriatal pathway deterioration induced by 1-methyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine. It was found to greatly reduce the damage caused by 1-methyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine.

Key Conclusions:

  • Is neuroprotective against striatal ischemic injury, nigrostriatal pathway deterioration after the administration of 1-methyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine

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In this study, aged beagle dogs were training on size or intensity discrimination tasks after either being treated with Adrafinil or a placebo. Training continue until either 40 minutes had passed, or the dogs reached a preset performance benchmark.

The dogs treated with Adrafinil showed a significant increase in learning both by committing fewer errors and reaching the performance standard at a faster rate.

Key Conclusions:

  • In aged beagles, Adrafinil produced a significant increase in learning on size and intensity discrimination tasks.
  • Improvements in motivation induced by Adrafinil may partially account for these findings.

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